Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Recently Implemented Clean Water Act Permit Requirements for Vessels

Process applies to any vessel over 300 GRT or having a ballast water capacity greater than 8 cubic meters (2,113 gallons). In order to qualify under the permit the only action the operator will need to take is to file a "Notice of Intent" by 19 September 2009 (but after 19 June 2009). This is an easy, 3 page form that can be filled out on an EPA web site and submitted. The permit only limits activities in "waters of the United States" (extending to the outer reach of the 3 mile territorial sea"). The permit does not "affect, supersede, or relieve any otherwise applicable requirements or prohibitions under other provisions of Federal law or regulations. Specifically:

1. A Ballast Water Management Plan
2. Garbage disposal (33 CFR Part 151, Subpart A)
3. Oil (MARPOL, etc.)

The permit will limit, within the 3 mile territorial sea (in addition to all the existing limits like oil, garbage, etc.) Deck Washdown and Runoff and Above Water Line Hull Cleaning "to minimize the introduction of on-deck debris, garbage, residue and spill," "presence of floating solids, visible foam, halogenated phenol compounds, and dispersants, or surfactants," "rust (and other corrosion by-products), cleaning compounds, paint chips, non-skid material fragments, and other materials associated with exterior topside surface preservations." "If deck wasdowns or above water line hull cleaning will result in a discharge, they must be conducted with non-toxic and phosphate cleaners and detergents."

Chain Locker Effluent

Firemain System discharges are allowed but limited to those where "the intake comes directly from the surrounding waters or potable water supplies and there are no additions to the discharge."

Graywater. "All vessel must minimize the discharge of graywater while in port," the introduction of kitchen oils must be minimized to the graywater system," Vessel owner/operators must use phosphate free and non-toxic soaps and detergents for any purpose if they will be discharged into waters subject to this permit."

Boat Engine Wet Exhaust "Vessels generating wet exhaust must be maintained in good order to decrease pollutant contributions to wet exhaust use low sulfur or alternative fuels to reduce the concentration of pollutants," "consider four stroke versus two stroke engines."

Sonar Dome Discharge. "The water inside the sonar dome shall not be discharged within waters subject to this permit for maintenance purposes."

Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges. Bringing in the team of divers with power brushes is no longer acceptable hull cleaning should be done in drydock with adequate controls on the runoff water.

The General Permit
The general permit issued by EPA will apply to all covered vessels that discharge into waters of the United States, regardless of whether a state is authorized to implement other aspects of the NPDES permit program. The vessel discharges covered by the general permit are discharges excluded from NPDES permitting programs under 40 C.F.R. § 122.3 and, therefore, are not considered a part of any currently authorized state NPDES program. 40 C.F.R. § 123.1(i)(2). EPA has not yet outlined its plan for how states may obtain approval to implement NPDES permitting for vessel discharges within their jurisdictions.

Owners and operators of vessels that are greater than 300 tons or that have the capacity to hold or discharge more than eight cubic meters (2,113 gallons) of ballast water will be required to submit a notice of intent (NOI) form to receive permit coverage. However, the final permit is expected to provide a nine-month grace period in which to complete and submit the NOI. All other owners and operators will be automatically authorized by the general permit to discharge according to the permit requirements. The general permit addresses 28 potential vessel discharge streams, including ballast water, deck runoff, bilgewater discharge, and graywater discharge, by establishing effluent limits and best management practices (BMPs) to control the discharge. Discharges that are not covered by the general permit include garbage or trash, sewage, used or spent oil, and discharges of industrial materials such as solvents from drycleaning operations, medical waste, or photo processing effluent.

In addition to these standard or common requirements, the general permit outlines further requirements for eight specific classes of vessels, such as cruise ships, research vessels, large ferries, and barges. For example, the additional permitting requirements for barges include:

1) preventing contamination of condensation,
2) requiring barges to have spill rails and to plug scuppers, and
3) prohibiting a discharge with a visible oil sheen.

It also requires a visual inspection for a visual sheen every time water is pumped from below deck. Finally, the general permit will include requirements for routine inspections (once per week and a comprehensive annual inspection, etc.), monitoring (depending on discharge type), recordkeeping, documentation of inspections in a log book, etc.), and reporting (noncompliance reporting, one-time permit reporting, etc.).

Friday, March 20, 2009

Fire Extinguishers for Small Boats

Coast Guard Approved fire extinguishers are required on boats where a fire hazard could be expected from the motors or the fuel system. Extinguishers are classified by a letter and number symbol. The letter indicates the type fire the unit is designed to extinguish (Type B for example are designed to extinguish liquids such as gasoline, oil, and grease fires. The number tells you the size of the extinguisher. The higher the number, the larger the extinguisher.

Coast Guard approved extinguishers required for boats are hand portable, either B-1 or B-II classification and have a specific marine type mounting bracket. It is recommended the extinguishers be mounted in a readily accessible position, away from the areas where a fire could likely start such as the galley or the engine compartment.

Extinguisher markings can be confusing because extinguishers can be approved for several different types of hazards. For instance, an extinguisher marked "Type A, Size II, Type B or C, Size I" is a B-1 extinguisher. Look for the part of the label that says "Marine Type USCG" Make sure Type B is indicated. Portable extinguishers will be either size I or II. Size III and larger are too big for use on most recreational boats.

Fire Extinguishers are required on boats when any of the following conditions exist:
1. Inboard engines are installed.
2. There are closed compartments and compartments under seats where portable fuel tanks may be stored.
3. There are double bottoms not sealed to the hull or which are not completely filled with flotation materials.
4. There are closed living spaces.
5. There are closed stowage compartments in which combustible or flammable materials are stored.
6. There are permanently installed fuel tanks. (Fuel tanks secured so they cannot be moved in case of fire or other emergency are considered permanently installed. There are no gallon capacity limits to determine if a fuel tank is portable. If the weight of a fuel tank is such that persons on board cannot move it, the Coast Guard considers it permanently installed.)

Fire Extinguisher Maintenance
Inspect extinguishers monthly to make sure that:
1. Seals and tamper indicators are not broken or missing.
2. Pressure gauges or indicators read in the operable range. Note: CO2 extinguishers do not have gauges.
3. There is no obvious physical damage, rust, corrosion, leakage or clogged nozzles.
4. Weigh extinguishers annually to make sure the minimum weight is as stated on the extinguisher label.

If your extinguisher has been partially emptied they have to be replaced or taken to a qualified fire extinguisher company for recharge.

Required Number of Fire Extinguishers
The number of fire extinguishers required on a recreational boat are based on the overall length of the boat. The following chart lists the number of extinguishers that are required. In the case where a Coast Guard approved fire extinguishing system is installed for the protection of the engine compartment, the required number of units may be reduced in accordance with the chart.

Vessel less than 26 feet with no fixed system are required to have 1 B-I fire extinguisher.
Vessels 26 feet to less than 40 feet with no fixed system are required to have 2 B-I or 1 B-II.
Vessels 40 feet to 65 feet with no fixed system are required to have 3 B-I or 1 B II and 1 B-1.

Saturday, March 14, 2009

Visual Distress Signals for Small Boats

All vessels on coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and territorial seas must have approved Coast Guard approved visual distress signals onboard. These vessels are not required to carry day signals but must carry night signals when operating from sunset to sunrise:

Recreational boats less than16 feet in length.
Boats in organized events such as races, and regattas.
Open sailboats less men 26 feet in length not equipped with propulsion machinery.
Manually propelled boats.

Pyrotechnic Visual Distress Signals must be Caast Guard Approved, in serviceable condition, and readily accessible.
1. They are marked with an expiration date. Expired signals may be carried as extra equipment, but can not be counted toward meeting the visual distress signal requirement, since they may be unreliable.

2. Launchers manufactured before January 1, 1981, intended far use with approved signals, are nat required ta be Coast Guard Approved.

3. If pyrotechnic devices are selected a minimum of three are required. That is, three signals for day use and three signal for night. Some pyrotechnic signals meet both day and night use If you can get a watertight container painted red or orange and mark it "DISTRESS SIGNALS" or "FLARES".

Coast Guard approved pyrotechnic visual distress signals are:
1. Red Flares, hand held or aerial.
2. Orange Smoke, hand held or floating.
3. Launchers for aerial red meteors or parachute flares.


Non-Pyrotechnic Devices
Non-Pyrotechnic Visual Distress Signals must be in serviceable condition, readily accessible, and certified by the manufacturer as complying with U.S.C.G. requirements. They are:

Orange Distress Flag, day signal only. Must be at least 3 x 3 feet with a black square and ball an an orange background. Must be marked with an indication that it meets Coast Guard requirements in 46 CFR 160.072. Most distinctive when attached and waved on a paddle, boathook, or flown from a mast. It can also be incorporated as part of devices designed to attract attention in an emergency, such as balloons, kites, or floating streamers.

Electric distress light, accepted for night use only. Automatically flashes the international SOS distress signal ... - - - ... Must be marked with an indication that it meets Coast Guard requirements in 46 CFR 161.013. Under Inland Navigation Rules, a high intensity white light flashing at regular intervals from 50-70 times per minute is considered a distress signal. But these devices do NOT count toward meeting the visual distress signal requirement.

The regulations prohibit display of visual distress signals an the water under any circumstances except when assistance is required to prevent immediate or potential danger to persons on board a vessel.

All distress signals have distinct advantages and disadvantages. No single device is ideal under all conditions or suitable for all purposes. Pyrotechnics are recognized as excellent distress signals. However, there is potential for injury and property damage if not properly handled. These devices produce a very hot flame and the residue can cause burns and ignite flammable materials.

Pistol launched and hand, held parachute flares and meteors have many characteristics of a firearm and must be handled with caution. In some states they are considered a firearm and prohibited from use.

Here are some of the devices which you can carry to meet the requirements:
1. Three hand held red flares (day and night).
2. One hand held red flare and two parachute flares (day or night).
3. One hand held orange smoke signal, two floating orange smoke signals (day) and one electric distress light (night only).
Note: Make sure you have the current dates on your distress signals.

Monday, March 9, 2009

Requirements and Safety Tips for Recreational Boats (PFD's)

The Coast Guard sets minimum standards for recreational boats and associated safety equipment. To meet these standards some of the equipment must be Coast Guard approved. "Coast Guard Approved Equipment" meets Coast Guard specifications and regulations for performance, construction or materials.

All recreational boats must carry one wearable PFD (type I, II, III, or type V PFD) for each person aboard. A type V PFD provides performance of either a type I, II, or III PFD (as marked on its label) and must be used according to the label requirements. Any boat 16 feet and longer (except canoes and kayaks) must also carry one throwable PFD (type IV PFD).

PFD's must be:
1. Coast Guard approved
2. In good serviceable condition and
3. The appropriate size for the intended user

1. Wearable PFDs must be readily accessible.
2. You must be able to put them on in a reasonable amount of time in an emergency (vessel sinking, on fire, etc.)
3. They should not be stowed in plastic bags, in locked or closed compartments or have other gear stowed on top of them.
4. Though not required, a PFD should be worn at all times when the vessel is underway. A wearable PFD can save your life, but only if you wear it.
5. Throwable devices must be immediately available for use.

Inflatable PFDs:
Inflatable PFDs may be more comfortable to wear. The best PFD is the one you will wear. Inflatable PFDs require the user to pay attention to the condition of the device. Inflatable PFDs must have a full cylinder and all status indicators on the inflator must be green, or the device is NOT serviceable, and does NOT satisfy the requirement to carry PFDs.
Coast Guard Approved Inflatable PFD's are authorized for use on recreational boats by person at least 16 years of age .

Child PFD Requirements:
On a vessel underway, children under 13 must wear an appropriate Coast Guard approved PFD, unless they are (1) Below decks, or (2) Within an enclosed cabin. Within the geographic boundaries of any State that has established a child PFD wear requirement, that State's requirement will be adopted.

Child PFD approvals are based on the child's weight. Check the "User Weight" on the label, or the approval statement that will read something like "Approved for use on recreational boats and uninspected commercial vessels not carrying passengers for hire, by persons weighing _Ibs." They can be marked less than 30, 30 to 50, less than 50, or 50 to 90.

PFD requirements for certain boating activities under state laws:
The Coast Guard recommends and many states require wearing PFD's such as
1. For water skiing and other towed activities (use a PFD marked for water skiing).
2. While operating personal watercraft (PWC) (use a PFD marked for water skiing or (PWC).
3. During white water boating activities.
4. While sailboarding (under Federal law, sail boards are not "boats). Check with your state boating safety rules.

Federal law does not require PFDs on racing shells, rowing sculls, racing canoes, and racing kayaks, state laws vary. Check with your state boating safety officials. If you are boating in an area under the jurisdiction of the Army Corps of Engineers, or a federal, state, or local park authority, other rules may apply.

There are three basic kinds of PFD flotation in five types of PFD's with the following characteristics:
"Inherently Buoyant" (primarily Foam)
1. The most reliable.
2. Adult, Youth, Child, and Infant sizes.
3. For swimmers and non-swimmers.
4. Wearable and throwable styles.
5. Some designed for water sports.

1. The most compact
2. Sizes only for adults
3. Only recommended for swimmers
4. Wearable styles only
5. Some with the best in water performance

"Hybrid" (Foam and Inflation)
1. Reliable
2. Adult, Youth, and Child sizes
3. For swimmers and non-swimmers
4. Wearable styles only
5. Some designed for water sports

Types of PFD's
A TYPE I PFD, or OFF-SHORE LIFE JACKET: This type provides the most buoyancy. It is effective for all waters where rescue may be delayed. It is designed to turn most unconscious wearers in the water to a face up position.

A TYPE II PFD, NEAR-SHORE BUOYANCY VEST: Is intended far calm, inland water or where there is a good chance of quick rescue. Inherently buoyant PFDs of this type will turn some unconscious wearers to a face up position in the water, but the turning is not as pronounced as a Type I.

A TYPE III PFD, FLOTATION AID: Is good far conscious users in calm, inland water, or where there is a good chance of quick rescue. It is designed so wearers can place themselves in a face up position in the water. The wearer may have to tilt their head back to avoid turning face down in the water. The Type III foam vest has the same minimum buoyancy as a Type II PFD. It comes in many styles, colors, and sizes and is generally the most comfortable type for continuous wear. Float coats, fishing vests, and vests designed with features suitable for various sports activities are examples of this type of PFD. This type inflatable turns as well as a Type II foam PFD.

A TYPE IV PFD, THROWABlE DEVICE: Is intended for calm, inland water with heavy boat traffic, where help is always present. It is designed to be thrown to a person in the water and grasped and held by the user until rescued. It is not designed to be worn. Type IV devices include buoyant cushions, ring buoys, and horseshoe buoys. There are no inflatable type IV devices.

A TYPE V PFD, SPECIAL USE DEVICE: Is intended for specific activities and may be carried instead of another PFD only if used according to the approval conditions on its label. A Type V PFD provides performance of either a Type I, II, or III PFD (as marked on its label). If the label says the PFD is "approved only when worn" the PFD must be worn, except for persons in enclosed spaces and used in accordance with the approval label, to meet carriage requirements. Some Type V devices provide significant hypothermia protection. Varieties include deck suits, work vests, board sailing vests, and vest with safety harness.

A TYPE V, INFLATABLE PFD WITH SAFETY HARNESS: Is approved as a Type V PFD because its use to prevent falls overboard presents several risks. The Coast Guard has not assessed potential for personal injury as a result of a fall. The safety harnesses are designed to be worn at the chest area, to reduce injury potential due to shock loads. The harness belt must always be worn at least 2 inches above the lowest rib measured from the bottom of the harness belt and adjusted to a tight personal fit. In case of capsizing, or sinking, the boat may take you down, resulting in death. DO NOT attach to boat unless being worn with tether of less than 6.5 feet in length and with quick-release-under-load hardware. U.S. COAST GUARD APPROVAL DOES NOT APPLY TO THIS HARNESS.

PFDs come in a variety of shapes, colors and materials. Some are made to be more rugged and lost longer while others are made to protect you from cold water. No matter which PFD you choose, be sure to get one that is right for you, your planned activities, and the water conditions you expect to encounter. Remember, spending a little time now can save you a lifetime later.

Select a properly sized PFD (Coast Guard Approved).
Try on the PFD to see if it fits comfortably snug. Insure all straps, zippers and ties are fastened.
Raise your arms over your head.
Have someone lift your PFD straight up by the shoulders. The PFD should stay in place. If the zipper touches your nose or almost comes off, the PFD is too loose.
Test your PFD in shallow water to see how it floats you.
Put on your PFD and insure that all straps, zippers, and ties are fastened. Tuck in any loose strap ends. Relax your body and let your head tilt back.
Make sure your PFD keeps your chin above water and you can breathe easily. If your mouth is not well above the water, get a new PFD or one with more buoyancy.

Child PFD
Check PFD label for proper weight range to match your child's weight. Note: While some children in the 30-50 pound weight range who can swim may like the extra freedom of movement that a Type III PFD provides, most children in this weight range, especially those who can't swim, should wear a Type II PFD. To check for a good fit, pick the child up by the shoulders of the PFD. If the PFD fits right, the child's chin and ears will not slip through. A child's PFD should be tested in the water immediately after purchase. Children panic when they fall into the water suddenly. They move their arms and legs violently and try to climb out of the water, making it hard to float safely in a PFD. A PFD will keep a child afloat, but may not keep a struggling child face up. That is why it is so important to teach children how to put on a PFD and to teach them to relax in the water.

Saturday, March 7, 2009

Ballast Water Management

The unintentional introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) into U.S. waters via the discharge of vessels ballast water has had significant negative effects on the nation’s marine and freshwater resources, biological diversity and coastal infrastructures. The Coast Guard is responding to these concerns through a comprehensive national BWM program. This program

(1) requires mandatory ballast water management on all vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate on waters of the U.S.
(2) establishes additional practices for vessels entering U.S. waters after operating beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and
(3) requires the reporting and recordkeeping of ballasting operations whenever a vessel equipped with ballast water tanks enters a U.S. port or place to anchor or moor. Since November 1, 2004, the Coast Guard has enforced mandatory ballast water management practices for all vessels equipped with ballast tanks bound for ports or places within the U.S. and or entering U.S. waters, regardless of whether a vessel operated outside of the EEZ of the U.S. or equivalent zone of Canada. This includes those ships that declare No Ballast On Board (NBOB), and for transits that occur between all Captain of the Port zones, including zones in the Great Lakes. If the voyage is less than 24 hours, the operator must report before departing the port or place of departure. If the voyage exceeds 24 hours, the operator must report at least 24 hours before arrival at the port or place of destination.

Mandatory Practices (33 CFR §151.2035(a)) include avoiding ballast operations in or near marine sanctuaries, marine preserves, marine parks or coral reefs, avoiding or minimizing ballast water uptake: where known infestations, harmful organisms and pathogens are located, near sewage outfalls, near dredging operations, where tidal flushing is poor or when a tidal stream is known to be more turbid, in darkness when organisms may rise up in the water column, in shallow water or where propellers may stir up the sediment, areas with pods of whales, convergence zones and boundaries of major currents, cleaning ballast tanks to remove sediment regularly; only discharging minimal amounts of ballast water in coastal and internal waters; rinsing anchors and anchor chains during retrieval to remove organisms and sediments at their place of origin; removing fouling organisms from hull, piping and tanks on a regular basis and dispose of any removed substances in accordance with local, state and federal regulations; maintaining a vessel specific ballast water management plan, train vessel personnel in ballast water and sediment management and treatment procedures.

Additional mandatory practices for all vessels arriving in U.S waters with ballast water that was taken on within 200 NM of any coast after operating beyond the U.S. EEZ must do one of the following: Conduct mid-ocean ballast water exchange prior to entering U.S. waters, retain the ballast water on board while in U.S. waters or use a Coast Guard approved method to treat the ballast water. BWM practices shall not jeopardize the safety of a vessel, its crew, or its passengers. Therefore, the master of a vessel will not be prohibited from discharging unexchanged ballast, in areas other than the Great Lakes and the Hudson River, if the master decides that the practice would be a threat to safety, stability, or security because of adverse weather, vessel design, equipment failure, or any other extraordinary condition. All vessels, however, must discharge only the minimal amount of ballast water operationally necessary and ensure ballast water records accurately reflect any reasons for not complying with the mandatory requirements. The only vessels that are exempt from the mandatory BWM reporting and record keeping requirements of 33 CFR 151.2041 and 151.2045 are:

• Crude oil tankers engaged in coastwise trade Cautionary Situations 99 of 111 Chapter XI
• DOD/Coast Guard/Armed Service Vessels,
• Vessel that operate exclusively within a single COTP zone do not have to submit BWM reports and do not have to maintain BWM records on board for two years.
• Vessels that operate in more than one COTP zone, but conduct all ballast operations (uptake and discharge) exclusively in one COTP zone, regardless of the number of voyages the vessel makes, are also not required to report of maintain BWM records under 33 CFR 151.2041 and 151.2043. Vessels engaged in the foreign export of Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil: These vessels must ensure compliance with the reporting and record keeping provisions of 33 CFR 151.2041 and 151.2045 in addition to the requirements of 15 CFR 754.2(j)(3).
Penalties for failing to comply with the Mandatory BWM Requirements:
Max: $27,500 per day
Willful violations = Class C Felony

Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Water Pollution Prevention

The Refuse Act of 1899 and the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (33 USC: 1901-1911) prohibit the throwing, discharge, or depositing of any refuse matter of any kind (including trash, garbage, oil, and other liquid pollutants) into the waters of the U.S. (from the shoreline to a distance of three miles). The Federal Water Pollution Control Act prohibits the discharge of oil or hazardous substances in quantities that may be harmful into U.S. navigable waters, the contiguous zone, and waters within 200 miles.

A person in charge of a vessel or an onshore or offshore facility is required to immediately report by telephone, radio telecommunication, or other similar means, any discharge of oil or other hazardous substance into the water. Reports should be made by calling toll-free to the National Pollution Response Center at (800) 424-8802. Penalty for discharging harmful oil is a maximum of $5,000 assessed against the person-in-charge of the source. Failure to notify the Coast Guard is a criminal penalty with a maximum $10,000 charge and/or one-year imprisonment. The owner/operator of the vessel or shore facility is liable for removal costs. Limits of liability are determined by vessel tonnage.

Certified marine sanitation devices (MSDs) are required on all vessels with installed toilet facilities. Direct discharge toilets are illegal unless the vessel is operating under a waiver granted by the Commandant (CG- 3PVC), U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC 20593-0001. This includes any equipment for installation onboard a vessel that is designed to receive, retain, treat, or discharge sewage and any process that treats such sewage. It does not include "portable toilets" which can be carried on and off the vessel. The discharge of untreated or inadequately treated sewage inside 3NM into U.S. waters is prohibited for all vessels, including foreign, federal, and state-owned vessels operating in U.S. waters. Noncompliance will result in civil penalties of up to $2,000. Manufacturers that sell MSDs or manufacturers of vessels with MSDs aboard that do not comply with these regulations are subject to fines of up to $5,000. More specific information concerning water pollution is contained in Title 33 Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 153, 155, and 159. All boaters must help to ensure that others obey the law and are encouraged to report polluting discharges to the nearest Coast Guard Office or call toll-free 1-800-424-8802. Please report the following information: 1) location 2) source 3) size 4) color 5) substance and 6) time observed. DO NOT attempt to take samples of any chemical discharge. If uncertain as to the identity of any discharge, avoid flame, physical contact, or inhalation of fumes. Law Enforcement 88 of 111 Chapter X

A vessel, except a vessel of less than 26 feet in length, must have a placard of at least 5 by 8 inches, made of durable material, fixed in a conspicuous place in each machinery space, or at the bilge and ballast pump control station, stating the following: DISCHARGE OF OIL PROHIBITED THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT PROHIBITS THE DISCHARGE OF OIL OR OILY WASTE INTO OR UPON THE NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES OR THE WATERS OF THE CONTIGUOUS ZONE IF SUCH DISCHARGE CAUSES A FILM OR SHEEN UPON OR DISCOLORATION OF THE SURFACE OF THE WATER OR CAUSES A SLUDGE OR EMULSION BENEATH THE SURFACE OF THE WATER. VIOLATORS ARE SUBJECT TO A PENALTY OF $5,000.
a. FACILITIES (33 CFR §154): Any facility that transfers oil in bulk to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 or more barrels of oil must comply with these regulations. Operators of these facilities must submit letters of intent and operations manuals. Equipment requirements and transfer procedures are set forth in 33 CFR §154.
b. VESSELS (33 CFR §155): This section deals with vessel design, operations, and equipment requirements. No person may drain oil sumps, filters, strainers, or purifiers into a vessel’s bilge. Personnel qualifications and oil transfers procedures are also specified. Another part of this section requires all U.S. vessels of 26 ft or greater to display a placard.
c. TRANSFER OPERATIONS (33 CFR §156): This part deals with oil transfer operations, setting forth requirements for oil transfer, inspection procedures, equipment tests, and supervisory responsibilities.
d. TANK VESSELS (33 CFR §157): These regulations govern the design and operation of seagoing U.S. tank ships and barges of 150 gross tons and over that carry oil in the U.S. domestic trade. These regulations should reduce pollution from tank cleaning and deballasting operations. Copies of these regulations may be obtained from the nearest Government Printing Office or marine supply store. For any questions concerning these regulations contact your nearest Coast Guard Captain of the Port.

As of July 31, 1990, certain U.S. vessels are required to post garbage discharge placards for their crews and passengers. Certain other U.S. vessels are required to develop waste management plans and post garbage discharge placards for their crew and passengers. Placards are required for all manned U.S. vessels 26 feet or more in length. One or more placards must be placed in prominent locations and in sufficient numbers so they can be read by the crew and passengers. The placard locations must be readily accessible to the intended reader. Locations may include embarkation points, food service facilities, garbage handling spaces, and common spaces on deck. Coast Guard boarding officers must be satisfied that placards are located in such a manner, and in sufficient quantity, that every crew member and passenger aboard the vessel would have access to a placard. Boarding officers will have an ample supply of placards for public distribution during boardings. Individual mariners and small groups requesting placards may contact the Center for Marine Conservation, 312 Sutter Street, Suite 606, San Francisco, CA 94108, or call (415) 956-7441. A waste management plan and placard are required for all manned, ocean going U.S. vessels greater than 40 feet in length that are engaged in commerce, or equipped with a galley and berthing. The waste management plan must be developed in writing and meet the garbage discharge requirements of Title 33 Code of Federal Regulations subparts 151.51 through 151.77. Any person handling garbage on board the vessel must follow the provisions of the plan. The plan must describe procedures for collecting, processing, storing, and discharging garbage. The plan must designate the person who is in charge of carrying out the plan. The following is an example of a waste management plan for a vessel operating inside of three nautical miles from shore: "Solid waste management procedures. All garbage generated on the vessel is put in a garbage bag and disposed of in a trash container located at the port of call (or given to a tender vessel to take to shore for disposal). All crewmembers are to be oriented to the requirements of MARPOL Annex V by the captain. All new crewmembers will be specifically shown the garbage discharge placard and told to keep all refuse stowed on board. Passenger orientation to the vessel should include being shown the location of the trash receptacle, mention of refuse discharge regulations, and the name of the person charged with the Law Enforcement 89 of 111 Chapter X responsibility for carrying out the plan." Vessels operating beyond three nautical miles from shore must develop a plan that meets the requirements of MARPOL 73/78 Annex V, Garbage Discharge Restrictions. DISPOSAL OF PLASTICS AND OTHER GARBAGE IN U.S. WATERS New Federal regulations controlling disposal of garbage from vessels prohibit the discharge of plastic garbage anywhere in the marine environment. Plastic includes, but is not limited to: Plastic bags, Styrofoam, cups and lids, six pack holders, bottles, caps, buckets, shoes, milk jugs, egg cartons, stirrers, straws, synthetic fishing nets, ropes, lines, and "bio- or photo-degradable" plastics. These regulations also restrict the disposal of other types of garbage within specified distances from shore.

a. GARBAGE - all kinds of food, cargo, and maintenance waste, ashes or clinkers, and domestic waste (generated in living spaces aboard the vessel -- what we normally call trash). "Garbage" does not include fresh fish or fish parts, dishwater, and gray-water.
b. DISHWATER - the liquid residue from the manual or automatic washing of dishes and cooking utensils which have been pre-cleaned to the extent that any food particles adhering to them would not normally interfere with the operation of automatic dishwashers.
c. DUNNAGE - cargo associated waste.
d. GRAYWATER - drainage from a dishwasher, shower, laundry, bath, or washbowl and does not include drainage from toilets, urinals, hospitals, and cargo spaces. All U.S. vessels, wherever they operate, and foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters out to and including the Exclusive Economic Zone (200 miles) must comply with Annex V of MARPOL 73/78.